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Wild mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek var. sublobata (Roxb.) Verdcourt]


Vigna radiata var.sublobata belongs to the subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna . It is considered to be an wild ancestor of mungbean (Marechal et al. 1978). This species was formerly treated by many authors as Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb., which was considered as the common ancestor of both V.radiata and V.mungo (Verdcourt 1970). After further studies using newly collected living materials, it was revealed that the taxon contained two different forms, one related to V.radiata and the other to V.mungo (Arora et al. 1973, Singh et al.1974, Jain and Merhra 1980). Lukoki et al.(1980) accepted the specific distinction between the two forms and their relations as wild ancestors to the cultivated species. They treated two forms as V.radiata var.sublobata(Roxb.) Verdcourt and V.mungo var.silvestris Lukoki, Marechal et Otoul.
That treatment was confirmed by Chandelet al.(1984) and Miyazaki et al.(1984), based on the detailed morphological and biochemical studies. 2n=22 ?
Central and East Africa, Madagascar, Asia continent, Indonesia, New Guinea, North and East Australia (Tateishi 1996)
It has all the morphological key characters of mungbean (V.radiata ), but stem is lunk and all the plant parts are smaller (Marechal et al. 1978). Stipule is more slender than mungbean, but larger than black gram. Terminal leaflet usually 3-lobed. Peduncle long and coverd by short hairs. Hilum linear, aril thin, seed coat covering exist. Flowers pale yellow. Germination epicoyle, primary leaf lanceolate without petiole.
As genetic resources
Vigna radiata var.sublobata has been paid much attention as a gene source to mungbean. Fujii and Miyazaki(1987) found an accession (TC1966) of V.radiata var.sublobata which showed perfect resistance against azukibean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis). The resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene (Kitamura et al. 1988). Fujii et al. (1989) further revealed that TC1966 showed complete resistance against C.maculatus, C.phaseoli and Zabrotes subfasciatus. By using TC1966 as a gene source, Tomooka et al. (1992) successfully developed a bruchid resistant mungbean line in Thailand.
Besides the bruchid resistance, high resistance to yellow mosaic virus (Singh and Ahuja, 1977), high methionine content in seed (Babu et al. 1988), higher photosynthesis efficiency and tolerance to drought (Ignacimuthu and Babu, 1987), higher tolerance to saline and alkaline soils (Lawn et al. 1988) have been reported for V.radiata var.sublobata. Since it has very wide distribution range, further collection is important to obtain wide genetic variations.
Arora,P.K., K.P.Chandel and B.S.Joshi. 1973. Morphological diversity in Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb. Curr. Sci. 42": 359-361.
Babu,C.R., S.K. Sharma, S.R. Chatterjee and Y.P.Abrol. 1988. Seed protein and amino acid composition of wild Vigna radiata var.sublobata (Fabaceae) and two cultigens, V.mungo and V.radiata. Econ. Bot. 42: 54-61.
Chandel,K.P.S., R.N.Lester and R.J.Starling. 1984. The wild ancestor of urid and mungbeans (V.mungo (L.)Hepper and Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek) Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 89: 85-96.
Fujii,K.and S.Miyazaki.1987.Insfestation resistance of wild legumes(Vigna sublobata) to azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)(Coleoptera:Bruchidae) and its relationship with cytogenetic classification. Appl. Ent. Zool. 22: 229-230.
Fujii,K., M.Ishimoto and K.Kitamura.1989.Patterns of resistance to bean weevils (Bruchidae) in Vigna radiata-mungo complex inform the breeding of new resistant varieties. Appl. Ent. Zool. 24: 126-132.
Ignacimuthu,S. and C.R.Babu. 1987. Vigna radiata var.sublobata (Fabaceae) : Economically useful wild relative of urd and mung beans. Econ. Bot. 41: 418-422.
Jain,H.K. and K.L.Mehra. 1980. Evaluation, adaptation, relationship and cases of the species of Vigna cultivation in Asia. In Summerfield,R.J. and A.H.Butnting (eds.) Advances in legume science. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew. pp. 459-468.
Kitamura,K., M.Ishimoto and M.Sawa. 1988. Inheritance of resistance to infestation with azuki bean weevil in Vigna sublobata and successful incorporation to V.radiata. Japan J. Breed. 38: 459-464.
Lawn,R., W.Williams and B.C.Imrie. 1988. Potential of wild germplasm as a source of tolerance to environmental stresses in mungbean. In: "Mungbean" Proc. 2nd Int. Symp., AVRDC, Taiwan. pp.136-145.
Lukoki,L., R.Marechal and E.Otoul. 1980. Les ancetres sauvages des haricots cultives: Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek et V.mungo (L.)Hepper. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belgique. 50: 385-391.
Marechal,R., J.M.Mascherpa and F.Stainer. 1978. Etude taxonomique d'un groupe complexe d'speces des genres Phaseolus et Vigna (Papilionaceae) sur la base de donnees morphologiques et polliniques, traitees par l'analyse informatique. Boissiera 28.
Miyazaki,S., J.Kawakami, and N.Ishikura. 1984. Phylogenetic relationship and classification of Vigna radiata-mungo complex. JARQ 17(4), 225-229.
Singh,H.B., B.S.Joshi, K.P.S.Chandel, K.C.Pant and R.K.Saxena. 1974. Genetic diversity in some Asiatic Phaseolus species and its conservation. Indian J. Genet. 34, 52-57.
Singh,B.V. and M.R. Ahuja.1977. Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb. A source of resistance to yellow mosaic virus for cultivated mung. Indian J. Genet. 37: 130-132.
Tateishi,Y. 1996. Systematics of the species of Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis. In "Mungbean Germplasm : Collection, Evaluation and Utilization for Breeding Program" JIRCAS Working Report No.2. pp.9-24. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS), Japan.
Tomooka,N., C.Lairungreang, P.Nakeeraks, Y.Egawa and C.Thavarasook. 1992. Development of Bruchid-Resistant Mungbean Line Using Wild Mungbean Germplasm in Thailand. Plant Breeding 109: 60-66.
Verdcourt,B. 1970. Studies in the Leguminosae - Papilionoideae for the "Flora of Tropical East Africa" : IV. Kew Bulletin 24.