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Wild black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper var. silvestris Lukoki, Marechal & Otoul]


Vigna mungo var.silvestris belongs to the subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus Vigna . This species was formerly treated by many authors as Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb., which was considered as the common ancestor of both V.radiata and V.mungo (Verdcourt 1970).
After further studies using newly collected living materials, it was revealed that the taxon contained two different forms, one related to V.radiata and the other to V.mungo (Arora et al. 1973, Singh et al.1974, Jain and Merhra 1980).
Lukoki et al.(1980) accepted the specific distinction between the two forms and their relations as wild ancestors to the cultivated species. They treated two forms as V.radiata var.sublobata(Roxb.) Verdcourt and V.mungo var.silvestris Lukoki, Marechal et Otoul.
That treatment was confirmed by Chandel et al.(1984) and Miyazaki et al.(1984), based on the detailed morphological and biochemical studies. 2n=22 ?.
India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, West Myanmar(Tateishi 1996)
It has all the morphological key characters of black gram (V.mungo ), but stem is lunk and all the plant parts are smaller.
Hilum ovate, aril very thick. Seeds coverd with seed coat covering. Flowers golden yellow. Germination epigeal, primary leaf lanceolate without petiole.
As genetic resources
Compared with wild form of mungbean (V.radiata var.sublobata), there are very few studies of evalutaion as genetic resources regarding to this species. This variety is cross-compatible with black gram (Miyazaki et al. 1984). Further collection and evaluation of V.mungo var.silvestris are expected.
Arora,P.K., K.P.Chandel and B.S.Joshi. 1973. Morphological diversity in Phaseolus sublobatus Roxb. Curr. Sci. 42": 359-361.
Chandel,K.P.S., R.N.Lester and R.J.Starling. 1984. The wild ancestor of urid and mungbeans (V.mungo (L.)Hepper and Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek) Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 89: 85-96.
Jain,H.K. and K.L.Mehra. 1980. Evaluation, adaptation, relationship and cases of the species of Vigna cultivation in Asia. In Summerfield,R.J. and A.H.Butnting (eds.) Advances in legume science. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew. pp. 459-468.
Lukoki,L., R.Marechal and E.Otoul. 1980. Les ancetres sauvages des haricots cultives: Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek et V.mungo (L.)Hepper. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belgique. 50: 385-391.
Miyazaki,S., J.Kawakami, and N.Ishikura. 1984. Phylogenetic relationship and classification of Vigna radiata-mungo complex. JARQ 17(4), 225-229.
Singh,H.B., B.S.Joshi, K.P.S.Chandel, K.C.Pant and R.K.Saxena. 1974. Genetic diversity in some Asiatic Phaseolus species and its conservation. Indian J. Genet. 34, 52-57.
Tateishi,Y. 1996. Systematics of the species of Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis. In "Mungbean Germplasm : Collection, Evaluation and Utilization for Breeding Program" JIRCAS Working Report No.2. pp.9-24. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS), Japan.
Verdcourt,B. 1970. Studies in the Leguminosae - Papilionoideae for the "Flora of Tropical East Africa" : IV. Kew Bulletin 24.