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Rice [Oryza sativa L.]


Genome designation
Chromosome number
Diploid, 2n=24
Origin & classification
Rice is one of the world's three major crops, and is sometimes called as “Asian rice” in contrast to African rice (Oryza glaberrima). It is classified into three groups, indica, japonica and javanica. The cultivation had possibly started in Yangzi Jiang Basin (China) since older than 8,000 years based on archaeological evidence. Dominant hypothesis of its origin supports that O. sativa has separately derived in plural regions.
Rice is widely cultivated in tropic, sub-tropic and temperate regions in the world. Indica accounts for about 80 percent of its production.
Seeds are eaten after boiling (boiled rice and porridge rice), and processing (noodle, rice cake, confectionery etc.). Seeds are also used as materials for fermentation. Some rices are used as forage or ornamental crops.