Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper
[Black gram, Urd bean, Black matpe] SEED
To Japanese version
- <The situation in Japan and information from the NIAS genebank>
- Black gram has neither been grown nor used in Japan. Recently, black
gram is imported to Japan mainly from Thailand and Myanmar to make "moyashi"
- Black gram is considered to bave been domesticated in India from its
wild ancestral form (V.mungo var.silvestris Lukoki, Marechal
& Otoul). Center of genetic diversity is found in India (Zeven and de Wet. 1982). Natural distribution
of V.mungo var.silvestris ranges from India to Myanmar (Tateishi. 1996).
- Black gram belongs to the subgenus Ceratotropis in the genus
Vigna. The genus Vigna, together with the closely related
genus Phaseolus, forms a coplex taxonomic group, called Phaseolus-Vigna
complex. Verdcourt (1970) proposed a very restricted concept of Phaseolus,
limiting it exclusively to those American species with a tightly coiled
style and pollen grains lacking course reticulation, hence, promoting significantly
the concept of Vigna. According to his proposal, black gram and
its relatives (which is now recognized as the subgenus Ceratotropis)
were transferred to the genus Vigna from the genus Phaseolus.
Marechal et al. (1978) followed Verdcourt and presented a monograph on
the Phaseolus-Vigna complex. Their taxonomic system is generally
Taxonomic treatment of black gram and mungbean (V.radiata)
has been confused. Verdcourt (1970) proposed that these two species should
be treated as a single species. However, Marechal et al. (1978)
considered these two as distinct species and his proposal was supported
by many taxonomists. Two botanical varieties were recognized in V.mungo.
V.mungo var.mungo is the cultivated form (black gram), var.silvestris
is the wild ancestral form of black gram (Lukoki et al.1980). 2n=22.
- Black gram is an annual food legume. It shows both erect and crawling
growth habit. There are several distinct characters between black gram
and mungbean. Flower color of black gram is bright yellow, while that of
mungbean is pale yellow. Pocket on the keel, which is a characteristics
of the subgenus Ceratotropis, of black gram is longer than that
of mungbean. Pod of black gram is shorter than that of mungbean. Pod of
black gram attaches upright to the peduncle, while mungbean pod attaches
sideward or downward to the peduncle. In most cases, seed color is dull
black. However, shiny black and shiny green seeded black gram is also cultivated
in Nepal. The area of traditional cultivation of black gram is confined
to the South Asia and adjacent regions (India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh
- Black gram is cooked as "dhal soup" (split dehusked bean
soup) in the South Asia and adjacent regions.
- Lukoki,L., R.Marechal and E.Otoul. 1980. Les ancetres sauvages des haricots cultives: Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek et V.mungo (L.)Hepper. Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belgique. 50: 385-391.
- Marechal,R., J.M.Mascherpa and F.Stainer. 1978. Etude taxonomique d'un
groupe complexe d'speces des genres Phaseolus et Vigna (Papilionaceae)
sur la base de donnees morphologiques et polliniques, traitees par l'analyse
informatique. Boissiera 28 : 1-273.
- Tateishi,Y. 1996. Systematics of the species of Vigna subgenus
Ceratotropis. In "Mungbean Germplasm : Collection, Evaluation
and Utilization for Breeding Program" JIRCAS Working Report No.2.
pp.9-24. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS),
- Verdcourt,B. 1970. Studies in the Leguminosae - Papilionoideae for
the "Flora of Tropical East Africa" : IV. Kew Bulletin 24 : p.559.
- Zeven,A.C. and J.M.J. de Wet 1982. Dictionary of cultivated plants
and their regions of diversity. Centre for Agricultural Publication and