Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek
[Mungbean, Green gram] SEED
To Japanese version
- <The situation in Japan and information from the NIAS genebank>
- Mungbean is considered to have been introduced into Japan from China
before 17th century (Hoshikawa 1981). The seed materials found from "Torihama
shell midden" (Fukui prefecture) were identified as mungean seeds
and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) seeds (Maeda 1987). If this
identification of the seed materials is correct, mungbean have been introduced
in the early time of Joumon period (some 4,000 B.C). Mungbean is called
"Yaenari", "Fundou", "Ao mami" or "Ryokutou".
Mungbean had been cultivated widely in western and southern parts of Japan.
In the middle of Showa period (1949-1960), production area of mungbean
ranged 200-220 ha, and some 210 MT was produced (Hoshikawa 1981). Recently,
cultivation of this crop has nearly disappeared in Japan.
We have collected
a few mungbean landraces in the Nansei Archipelago (the southernmost islands)
(Katsuta and Takeya 1992, Tomooka et al.1994). It is used to make "Moyashi"
(a bean sprout or eaten mixed with steamed rice. In Tanegashima island,
the southernmost part of Japan, a long mungbean bean sprout has been made
to offer to their ancestor at the occasion of "bon festival (an important
Buddhism celebration day)" (Tomooka et al.1994). In 1994, a total
of 53,039 MT of mungbean was imported mainly from China (31,073 MT), Thailand
(12,510 MT) and Myanmar (8,8000 MT) (Zatsumame Yunyu Kikin Kyokai.1995).
- <Origin and dissemination>
- Mungbean has been considered to have been domesticated in India (Vavilov
1926). His theory has been supported by other authors based on the morphological
diversity (Singh et al. 1974), existence of wild and weedy types (Chandel
1984, Paroda and Thomas 1988), and archaeological remains (Jain and Mehra
1980) of mungbean in India. Wild forms of mungbean, V.radiata var.sublobata
show a wide area of distribution, stretching from Central and East Africa,
Madagascar, through Asia, New Guinea, to North and East Australia (Tateishi
Tomooka et al. (1992) examined the variations
of seed proteins in mungbean landraces from Asia, and proposed the regions
of protein type diversity and two dissemination pathways in mungbean. According
to their study, the region of protein type diversity is found in West Asia
(Afghanistan-Iran-Iraq area) rather than in India. Judging from the geographical
distribution of protein types, mungbean may have spread mainly to the east
by two routes. One route is from India to Southeast Asia; strains consisting
of a few protein types with prominent protein type 1 were disseminated
by this route. Another dissemination pathway may have been the route known
as the Silk Road. By this route, protein type 7 and 8 strains spread from
West Asia or India to China and Taiwan via the Silk Road, not by the route
from Southeast Asia.
- Mungbean is an annual food legume belonging to the subgenus Ceratotropis
in the genus Vigna. The genus Vigna, together with the closely
related genus Phaseolus, forms a complex taxonomic group, so called
Phaseolus-Vigna complex. Verdcourt (1970) proposed a very restricted
concept of Phaseolus, limiting it exclusively to those American
species with a tightly coiled style and pollen grains lacking course reticulation,
hence, promoting significantly the concept of Vigna. According to
his proposal, mungbean and its relatives (which is now recognized as the
subgenus Ceratotropis) were transferred to the genus Vigna
from the genus Phaseolus.
Marechal et al. (1978) followed Verdcourt
and presented a monograph on the Phaseolus-Vigna complex. Their
taxonomic system is generally accepted now. Three botanical varieties were
recognized in their monograph. V.radiata var.radiata is cultivated
form (mungbean), var.sublobata is the wild ancestral form of mungbean,
and var.setulosa is also wild form which distribute in India, Indonesia,
southern China. 2n=22.
- Mungbean is an erect or sub-erect herb, 0.5-1.3m tall (Purseglove 1974).
Flower is pale yellow. The seed color exhibits a wide range of variations
from yellow, greenish yellow, light green, shiny green, dark green, dull
green, black, brown, and green mottled with black. Pod color is either
black, brown or pale gray when mature. 100 seeds weight is 3-7g.
et al.(1991,1992) and Tomooka (1991) revealed the geographical distribution
of growth types, seed characters and protein types in mungbean landraces
collected from throughout Asia. In the South and West Asia, mungbean strains
characterized by small seeds with various seed color including black, brown
and green mottled with black, which show diverse growth habit and protein
types, were distributed. In the Southeast Asian countries, mungbean strains
characterized by various sized seed with shiny green seed testa, which
show tall plants with high branching habit, late maturity, and simple protein
type composition were distributed. In East Asia, mungbean strains characterized
by medium-sized dull green seed testa, which show short plants with an
early maturity, low-branching habit and relatively diverse (similar to
that of West Asia) protein types, were distributed.
- In the South Asia, mungbean is used to make "dhal", which
is the most common dish made from various kinds of split legumes with spices.
In the Southeast and East Asian countries, mungbean is used to make various
kinds of sweet, bean jam, sweetened bean soup, vermicelli, and bean sprout.
- Hoshikawa,K. 1981. Ryokutou (Mungbean). in "Shokuyou Sakumotu"
(Food Crops). Yoken-do, Tokyo. (in Japanese) pp.470-475.
- Katsuta,M. and M.Takeya. 1992. Exploration and Collection of Grain
Legumes and Millets in Okinawa Prefecture. Annual Report of Exploration
and Introduction of Plant Genetic Resources. Vol.8 : 1-8. NIAR, MAFF. Japan.
in Japanese with English Summary.
- Maeda, K. 1987. Mame to Ningen (Legumes and man). Kokin Shoin, Tokyo.
- Marechal,R., J.M.Mascherpa and F.Stainer. 1978. Etude taxonomique d'un
groupe complexe d'speces des genres Phaseolus et Vigna (Papilionaceae)
sur la base de donnees morphologiques et polliniques, traitees par l'analyse
informatique. Boissiera 28.
- Purseglove, J.W. 1974. Phaseolus aureus In "Tropical Crops
: Dicotyledons." London : Longman. pp.290-294.
- Tateishi,Y. 1996. Systematics of the species of Vigna subgenus
Ceratotropis. In "Mungbean Germplasm : Collection, Evaluation
and Utilization for Breeding Program" JIRCAS Working Report No.2.
pp.9-24. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS),
- Tomooka,N. 1991. Geographical Distribution of Seed Characters in Mungbean.
In "Genetic Diversity and Landrace Differentiation of Mungbean, Vigna
radiata (l.) Wilczek, and Evaluation of its Wild Relatives (The Subgenus
Ceratotropis) as Breeding Materials" Techinical Bulletin of Tropical
Agriculture Research Center. No.28. pp.10-17. MAFF, Japan.
- Tomooka,N., C.Lairungreang, P.Nakeeraks and C.Thavarasook. 1991. Geographical
Distribution of Growth Types in Mungbean, Vigna radiata (l.) Wilczek.
Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture 35(3): 213-218.
- Tomooka,N., C.Lairungreang, P.Nakeeraks, Y.Egawa and C.Thavarasook.
1992. Center of genetic diversity and dissemination pathways in mung bean
deduced from seed protein electrophoresis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics.
- Tomooka,N., H.Nakayama, K.Yamada and A.Sugimoto. 1994. Exploration
for Collecting Landraces of Cultivated Crops in Tanegashima and Yakushima
Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture. Annual Report of Exploration and Introduction
of Plant Genetic Resources. Vol.10 : 15-24. NIAR, MAFF. Japan. (in Japanese
with English Summary)
- Zatsumame Yunyu Kikin Kyokai. 1995. Yunyu Mamerui Zukan (A pictorial
book of imported food legumes) (in Japanese).